Figures

South Asia is separated from the rest of Asia through geography, geology, climate and political history. The sea-coast of the Indian mainland and the mountainous Himalayas regions in the north are the characteristics of the subcontinent.
South Asia is the result of the movement of the Indian into the Euro Asian plate, approximately 70 – 40 million years ago. The collision of both plates forms the Himalayas. This process continues today. The Himalaya Mountains, in turn, are the source of three major river systems flowing to the South: Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. South Asia has a distinct climate and seasonal air circulation (monsoon).
Politically, several empires existed in South Asia such as the Mughal dynasty and the British Raj. Since the 18th century, the British colonial administration was directly or indirectly involved in the formation of the present states in the region, including patronages.
Seven states belong to South Asia: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

(2009):

– 1.6 billion people, i.e. 22 % of the world’s population;
– 4.5 million square kilometre, i. e.  3 % of the land surface of the earth;
– 1.780 billion US Dollar Gross Domestic Product (GDP), i. e. 2.87 % of world’s GDP, (9th in the world)

India is the dominant country in South Asia with 73 % of the land area, 69 % of the population and 76 % of the GDP. All the other South Asian states border India, but none of these states have a border with each other.

South Asia is characterised by deep regional disparities: 9.2 % of the population lives in 17 urban centers (see tables). This part of the population contributes to approx. 62 % of the GDP. Only, Karachi produces 20 % of the GDP of Pakistan. In total, 30 % of population lives in urban areas. On the other hand, there is a high proportion of rural population (70 %).

Year

1960

1980

2000

2009

Population total (in Million)

564,1

906,1

1.362,3

1.566,7

GDP per head (US Dollar)

84,04

257,8

446,4

1040,6

Agriculture GDP (Billion, current Dollar)

20,08

75,01

135

273,1

Agriculture (% of GDP)

42,82

34,70

23,86

17,84

Industry GDP (Billion, current US Dollar

8,06

51,97

144,08

428,69

Industry (% of GDP)

19,11

24,39

25,29

27,74

Manufacturing (Billion, current US Dollar)

5,83

34,77

86,20

247,49

Manufacturing (% of GDP)

13,9

16,3

15,4

16,1

Services (Billion, current US Dollar)

16,9

87,23

281,6

839,8

Services (% of GDP)

38

40,9

50,34

54,4

Gross Capital Formation (% GDP)

14,02

18,61

23,45

32,08

Foreign Direct Investment (% of GDP)

0,08

0,72

2,36

Urban population (% of total)

16,56

22,25

27,3

29,8

Birth rate, crude (per 1000 people)

46,68

36,44

27,08

Death rate, crude (per 1,000 people)

23,17

13,50

8,63

Mortality under -5 (per 1000)

242,1

158,2

97,03

71,15

Life expectancy at birth, total (years)

42,87

54,46

61,35

Literacy rate, adult total (% of people ages 15 and above)

46,46 (1990)

57,86

Population density (people per sq. km of land area)

149,29 (1970)

189,50

285,32

Electric power consumption (kWh per capita)

125,38

358,99

Number of poor people, in million (1,25 Dollar per day) in Million (percentage of employed population)

285,2 (56,6%)(1999)

282 (43,5%)

Number of poor people, in million (2 Dollar per day) (percentage of employed population)

434,7 (86,3%)(1999)

508 (78,5%)

Source: Data including  Afghanistan; World Development Report online (wdronline.worldbank.org/)  ->World Bank Data -> Data Catalog -> World Development Indicators (WDI) -> World dataBank (World Development Indicators (WDI) & Global Development Finance (GDF) (14.1.2011), Date for Afghanistan GDP: 11,7 Billion, current US Dollar (2008), Population: 29 Million; International Labour Organization, Global Employment Trends, Geneva 2011, p. 71

Urban centres in South Asia

Position (2008) Centre/country (position world ranking of 150 centres) GDP in Billion  US Dollar (2008) Population in Million (2008-10)

1

Mumbai/India (29.)

209

12 (20)

2

Delhi/India (37.)

167

13 (18,9)

3

Kolkata/India (61.)

104

5 (16)

4

Dhaka/Bangladesh (77.)

78

5,3 (13)

5

Karachi/Pakistan(78.)

78

13

6

Bangalore/India (84.)

69

5,4 (6,5)

7

Chennai/India(87.)

66

4,6 (8)

8

Hyderabad/India (93.)

60

4,1 (6,3)

9

Ahmedabad/India(105.)

49

4 (5,4)

10

Poona/India (108.)

48

3,4 (5,5)

11

Lahore/Pakistan (121.)

40

10

12

Surat/India (123.)

36

5

13

Kanpur/India (133.)

26

5

14

Jaipur /India (137.)

24

3,5

15

Chittagong/Bangladesh (138.)

24

2,5 (3,8)

16

Lucknow/India (139.)

22

2,7

17

Faisalabad/Pakistan (142.)

14

2,8 (5,4)

total

1.114

148

Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_%28nominal%29, ukmediacentre.pwc.com/imagelibrary/downloadMedia.ashx?MediaDetailsID=1562 (14.1.2011)

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